Tag Archives: relation

Gilles Deleuze Logic of Sense: The Proposition

26 Jul

In Deleuze’s Logic of Sense, many arguable and intriguing things are brought to the table. I am only on the third series out of many series in the book (series here are like chapters). Only being at the third series, this is my second writing about the book.

In the third series, Deleuze begins to talk about what a proposition is created of, and how it comes to be. He divides the proposition between relations that are within it. These relations relate the proposition to its source, and influences that make it as it is so. Deleuze opposes the reliance of the proposition on signification because of the fact that universal propositions do not precede over as much as one may think. I think that the proposition relies mostly on denotation and manifestation because of the fact that propositions relate to specific unique states of affairs that we have questions about, and I also think that the person discussing the proposition has opinions and beliefs that direly affect that nature of the proposition itself.

We have questions about the world around us because of the fact that those things are specific in nature, and so specific that it is difficult to find truth about them. A preceding proposition having been validated has little grounds in the next proposition because of how this next proposition is as specific and unique as the one before. Because of these questions we have generating propositions to be validated, each proposition is extremely unique between it and the next one.

First, Deleuze states that one of the relations propositions have is denotation. This denotation is the relation to an outer state of affairs (correlating to Wittgenstein’s definition of state of affairs). States of affairs are single bodies, mixed bodies, grouped bodies, and the qualities and quantities thereof. Denotation is not to be confused with things related to propositions that are universal and widespread in nature. Denotation involves states of affairs that are singular and have a distinct when, where, and what about them. Deleuze exemplifies the uniqueness of each state of affairs within a denotation by saying how Benveniste  called the state of affairs indexicals. A proposition relying mostly on denotation and that denotation containing false states of affairs, makes that proposition false and likewise for truth. These indexicals of the denotation make the diversity of the world, causing issues to be discussed by use of proposition. These denotations make propositions what they really are.

The second kind of relation that propositions have to things outside it is the manifestation. The manifestation is the relation to the proposition of the  person advocating/opposing the discussed. A person with opinions putting forth a proposition about something, has his emotions, opinions, and beliefs. The proposition is made up by what the person discussing thinks.

Signification is the relation of the proposition to things that are universal and general in nature. Precedented propositions that are universal, and relating to a present argument is the relation of signification. Many things discussed are related to things that are precedented propositions because of their universality, and generality.

Sense being the fourth relational part of the proposition, is the relation of the proposition to sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. Propositions being argued by people have root in the senses especially metaphysically.

I choose to explain these 4 relations in a proposition as stated by Deleuze because 2 of which I feel are more involved in the proposition than the others. Denotation and manifestation, in my opinion, are the best propositional relations, and signification and sense are relations that make propositions difficult and hard to understand.

Sense does well to distort the proposition because of how our perceptive senses are not often accurate or even correct. The sense shows things how we are able to see them, regardless of how correct those perceptions are. Because of how the sense has the commonality to convey inaccurate images, the direct use of the sense as a relation within a proposition is going backward. The proposition only goes backward if the sense is used directly as a relation. If the sense was not used at all in relations of a proposition, there would also be issues. Manifestation would not exist if there was no sense. Manifestation comes from the sense because of how our perceptions from the senses create our collective opinions and beliefs that become ingrained in our personalities. The sense’s indirect use with manifestation is helpful to the proposition, but its direct use does not help in forming or answering of the proposition.

Signification along with sense, is a propositional relation that also leads to difficulty and faults. Signification being relations within the proposition to universal/general concepts (Deleuze). Through denotation, the proposition will relate to universal concepts. Denotation (relation to specific states of affairs) will indirectly relate to certain universal concepts, without the direct relation of signification. Propositions are created because people have questions about the world around them that universal concepts already established cannot answer. The proposition is made because of how the question cannot be answered. The little relation to universal concepts the proposition has, in my opinion, is contained with denotation. The relation of signification is not necessary to state the relation to universal concepts.

2 of the 4 propositional relations that Deleuze states to exist I believe are truthful and not problematic. The problematic propositional relations are indirect relational parts of the other correct relation. For example,  I do not choose to advocate the use of signification, however, signification is a part of denotation. Signification is a part of denotation because of how specific states of affairs have some connection to universal concepts. Also, I do not advocate the use of sense in propositions, but manifestation has some relation to sense because of how our beliefs, opinions and thoughts are rooted in what we perceive. The 2 wrong propositional relations have small indirect foothold in the other 2 that are best to be used.

Denotation is a good propositional relation to use because of how it is the relation concerning specific states of affairs (groups of bodies). Propositions are created because we have questions about the world around, us and denotation being specific in nature is a relation that helps a lot in the creating and answering of the proposition. Denotation is one of the biggest things that make up a proposition because of how every question is specific in nature.

Manifestation is the second good propositional relation because of how the person creating the proposition is key in how it is the way it is. The beliefs, opinions, emotions, and thoughts of the person creating the proposition is the root of the proposition. If an atheist states “people are stupid to believe in a supreme deity”, the proposition says what it does because of the beliefs, personality, and emotion that the atheist has. Manifestation  along with denotation is one of the  only accurate relations that make up a proposition into what it is.

To sum up, Deleuze’s propositional relations all have roots in what makes up the proposition, but it is my opinion that sense is seen indirectly in the relation of manifestation, and signification is seen indirectly in the relation of denotation. The entities of sense and signification as single relations is not necessary because of how they bring inaccuracy by themselves.

Comment below, or @ reply on Twitter to talk about what propositional relations are accurate and should be recognized.